By Mairi Blackings, Nigel Fabb
This grammar offers the most special bills on hand of the syntax of a Nilo-Saharan language. It absolutely describes a number of the strange features of Ma'di, together with the various note orders linked to assorted tenses, the particle-based modal and concentration structures, the total diversity of adverbials, and the constitution and which means of the noun word. The grammar additionally describes the phonetics, phonology, morphology, and features of the lexicon of the language.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Ma’di
Similarly, the labial nasal [m] is not restricted before any vowel. This pairing of an imposive and a nasal instantiates a more general crosslinguistic patterning of implosives with sonorants (eg. nasals) rather than with obstruents (eg. [p] and [b]); see Clements (2000:132). 2. Secondarily articulated (labialized) consonants, and doubly articulated (labiovelar) consonants The labialized consonants, the coronal and dorsal consonants with secondary labialization, are not found before back vowels (contra Tucker and Bryan 1966:30).
Secondarily articulated (labialized) consonants, and doubly articulated (labiovelar) consonants The labialized consonants, the coronal and dorsal consonants with secondary labialization, are not found before back vowels (contra Tucker and Bryan 1966:30). In this, labialized consonants resemble labial stops. 226 Download Date | 7/29/12 7:52 PM Tones 37 Before front vowels, the coronal consonants are not common, while the dorsal consonants are less restricted; in both cases, labialized consonants are more frequent before -ATR front vowels ([i], [ε]) than before +ATR front vowels ([i], [e]).
The vowel [a] does not clearly fall into the distributional patterns of either back or nonback vowels. The low vowel [A] does not contrast with [a]; it appears phonetically in some +ATR words, apparently as a consequence of vowel harmony with a +ATR vowel; thus λίι 'short' is the surface realisation of aii 'short'; the two forms are in free variation for a speaker. We note the existence of älä 'obstruct' but the absence of any word *Λ1Λ. Tucker and Bryan (1966: 28) suggest that for Moru-Ma'di as a whole the mid vowels do not contrast phonemically for ATR; instead the +ATR vowels [e] and [o] are said to arise only by harmony with high vowels within the same word.