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By Hubert Jedin

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Their theological advisers and defenders, such as Sanchez de Arevalo, Domenico de' Domenichi and Henricus Institoris, were to darken still further the shadow that fell from Torquemada's verdict not only upon the conciliar theory but upon the very idea of a Council. 1 At the approach of the last period of the Council of Trent the work was re­ printed, obviously for the purpose of the Council. 2 However, it would be a mistake to see in Torquemada a blind absolutist and an opponent of the Council as such : for one thing he was too near to the agitated period of the Schism.

2 While the men of Basle were engaged in a desperate struggle for their principle under the leadership of Aleman and Segovia, Eugenius IV brought to a successful issue the great task of leading back into the unity of the Church the Greeks, the Armenians and the lesser oriental Churches. 3 This 1 Cone. Bas. , VOL. VII I , p. 1 7 1 . Copious material on the "reformatio membrorum" is provided by two anonymous Italians, Cone. , VOL. I, pp. 2 1 0 ff. , and VOL. VI I I , pp. 3 7, 143; Andrew of Escobar, VOL .

This revulsion of feeling may be observed even in the greatest thinker of the time, Nicholas of Cusa. 1 Two basic principles, and, we may add, two standpoints confront each other in this work. With pseudo-Dionysius, Nicholas views the Church as a divine cosmos from the head of which, that is, Christ, grace flows into humanity through the channel of the hierarchy. The hier­ archy is the depositary of the priesthood in which the Pope, the bishops and even simple priests participate. On the other hand men are by nature free, hence it is only with their consent that ecclesiastical superiors and ecclesiastical laws may demand their obedience.

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