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1) Bilabial sounds are produced with b o t h lips. There is only one fortis bilabial i n English, namely / p / as in peach, whereas there are two lenis bilabials, / b / as in banarici and /ml as in mango. (2) Labiodental sounds are produced by a movement of the lower lip against the u p p e r teeth. There is one fortis labiodental in English, ffl as in film, and one lenis labiodental, / v / as in video. Consonants 21 The bilabials and labiodentals form one larger group, the labials, because they all make use of the lips.

These vowel sequences are called gliding vowels, vowel glides, or diphthongs [from G r e e k diphthonggos, 'double sound'; Doppellaut, Zwielaut]. A vowel chart indicating t h e starting points and tongue movements of all English diphthongs (note again the correct pronunciation /dif0Dnz/) is given in Figure 4, and the diphthongs are also included in the list of English sounds on the inside front cover. D i p h t h o n g s can be divided into three groups: (1) Centring diphthongs move t o wards schwa.

A mid f r o n t vowel. (3) The first sound in apple, represented by /se/. T h e front of the tongue is raised b e tween mid-open and fully open position, and the lips are slightly spread. A m i d open-open front vowel. (4) The second sound in butter, represented by / A / . The centre of the tongue is raised between mid-open and fully open position, and the shape of the lips is neutral. A mid-open-open central vowel. (5) The first sound in olive, represented by / D / . The back of the tongue is lowered to a l most fully open position, and the lips are slightly rounded.

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