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By John A. Hawkins

During this significant new publication, John A. Hawkins provides a brand new concept of linear ordering in syntax. He argues that processing provides an easy, sensible reason behind syntactic principles of ordering, in addition to for the choice between ordering editions in languages and buildings within which version is feasible. Insights from generative syntax, typological experiences of language universals, and psycholinguistic stories of language processing are mixed to teach that there's a profound correspondence among functionality and grammar.

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5) a. That Mary is sick surprised Bill, b. *Mary is sick surprised Bill. More troublesome examples of processing-motivated exceptions arise when the relevant grammatical conventions are more general. A case is discussed in ch. 2 involving prenominal adjective phrases in English. 6) a. a yellow book b. *a yellow with age book c. 7) a. a very yellow book b. a book very yellow with age By standard assumptions (cf. g. Jackendoff 1977) the addition of an adverb to an adjective requires us to postulate the existence of a dominating adjective phrase, and hence adjectives in both pre- and postnominal position are dominated by AdjP.

Again, there will be a minority of VPs in which NP exceeds PP in length, thereby going against the relative length differential that holds in the normal case and that led to the grammatical response, and some of these will remain in the grammaticalized (and now non-optimal) V NP PP order, while others will be subject to "Heavy NP Shift" in a manner that turns out to be highly systematic and predictable (cf. ch. 2 for precise quantitative data). Similar cases of a partial discrepancy between processing and the grammatical response can be expected in the other types of examples discussed as well.

A case is discussed in ch. 2 involving prenominal adjective phrases in English. 6) a. a yellow book b. *a yellow with age book c. 7) a. a very yellow book b. a book very yellow with age By standard assumptions (cf. g. Jackendoff 1977) the addition of an adverb to an adjective requires us to postulate the existence of a dominating adjective phrase, and hence adjectives in both pre- and postnominal position are dominated by AdjP. But if AdjP occurs before N in the NP, all lower dominated material should also be able to occur in this position, by virtue of a general structural principle: transitivity of domination.

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