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Theory A biosensor has three components: a receptor, a transducer and a detector. The receptor is responsible for the selectivity of the sensor; an optical biosensor can use a light source as its receptor. The transducer takes the change in the receptor and converts it into a signal that can be detected by the detector. In an optical biosensor the transducer is usually an optoelectronic instrument. Optical biosensors need an accurate light source and an appropriate sensing technique. Live cells are extremely vulnerable to excessive amounts of energy.

Page 20 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Manufacturing photonic devices 3 This chapter looks at processing and manufacturing techniques, packaging and assembly, and emerging materials. Polishing, patterning Polishing is done to planarise non-planar substrates, as scattering losses are proportional and lithography to surface roughness. Planarisation improves the yield of photolithography, etching and metallisation. Two types of polishing are generally used:  Mechanical polishing is usually done with a material that is as soft as the substrate; if a harder material is used, it introduces scratches and defects.

Laser drilling is an economical way to overcome this disadvantage and can be used to fabricate any material, regardless of hardness, chemical composition, absorptivity, etc. Laser drills use a wide variety of laser wavelengths and come with integrated laser, motion and vision systems. They offer high accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility for the medical device industry. Laser-drilled hole sizes vary with laser power, motion control and systems. Two common methods are percussion and trepanning.

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