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By Jay S Rosenblatt

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It should be noted that this dimension of response depth does not map in any simple way onto our notion of referents. Further, Slobodkin and Rapoport give three possible schemes for the interaction of these different possible mechanisms: a completely hierarchical system, a completely nonhierarchical direct response system, and a mixed, multilinked response system that is a combination of hierarchical and direct response mechanisms. They opt for the mixed system, which of necessity reduces the stringency of the predictions that their analysis will lead to.

This assumption alone carries a potential for hypothesis testing, but it does not distinguish between the secondary and tertiary referents. The analysis that followed from this assumption, however, showed that one of the principal constraints for any referent in its adapting to change is the time lag involved in the detection and response to change (that is, Waddington’s uncertain futures problem). In the case of the primary referent, this time lag corresponds to Lorenz’s generational dead time.

I . Learning is a tertiary information gaining process. The capacity to learn is conferred upon individual organisms within some populations by innate adaptability mechanisms. These mechanisms constitute a separate referent from phylogenesis and epigenesis. 2. Innate adaptability mechanisms are a product of phylogenesis acting upon a primary referent (an evolving population). They are therefore population specific. They may also be modified by epigenesis acting upon a secondary referent (an individual developing organism).

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