By Walt Wolfram, Natalie Schilling
The new version of this vintage textual content chronicles contemporary leap forward advancements within the box of yank English, overlaying nearby, ethnic, and gender-based differences.
- Now followed via a spouse web site with an in depth array of sound documents, movies, and different on-line fabrics to reinforce and illustrate discussions within the text
- Features fresh chapters that conceal the very most up-to-date subject matters, reminiscent of degrees of Dialect, local sorts of English, Gender and Language edition, the applying of Dialect research, and Dialect wisdom: Extending program, in addition to new workouts with on-line answers
- Updated to include dialect samples from a much wider array folks regions
- Written for college kids taking classes in dialect reviews, variationist sociolinguistics, and linguistic anthropology, and calls for no pre-knowledge of linguistics
- Includes a word list and broad appendix of the pronunciation, grammatical, and lexical beneficial properties of yankee English dialects
Read or Download American English: Dialects and Variation PDF
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Extra info for American English: Dialects and Variation
It also tends to be conservative and resistant to changes taking place within the language, and for some features, the prescribed usage will border on obsolescence. For example, the subjunctive use of be in sentences such as If this be treason, I am a traitor is a structure that is largely obsolete, yet this use can still be found in some prescriptive grammar books. Similarly, the maintenance of the singular form of data as datum, or even the shall/will distinction, has largely disappeared from spoken language, but it is still prescribed in many usage guides and maintained in written language.
Beginning in the 1960s, research on dialects in the United States started focusing more specifically on social and ethnic variation in American English than on regional variation. Part of this emphasis was fueled by a concern for language‐related social problems, particularly problems related to educational issues concerning America’s lower social classes. Some linguistic descriptions of vernacular dialects such as African American English and Appalachian English became the basis for programs which sought to r emedy educational inequalities.
B He’s not so smart as I. c He ain’t as smart as me. d He not as smart as me. 2 a He’s not to do that. b He not supposed to do that. c He don’t supposed to do that. d He’s not supposed to do that. 3 a I’m right, ain’t I? b I’m right, aren’t I? c I’m right, am I not? d I’m right, isn’t I? 4 a If I was going to do that, I would start right now. b If I were going to do that, I would start right now. c Were I to do that, I would start right now. d I would start right now, if I was going to do that.