Language Grammar

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By Helene Schmolz

The fields of linguistics and data expertise can take advantage of one another in priceless methods in the event that they get attached in a very interdisciplinary manner. This publication specializes in anaphora solution for the English language and exhibits how worthwhile a linguistic-computational viewpoint should be. It outlines every kind of anaphors and their frequencies and likewise develops principles for resolving non-finite clause anaphors, that have by no means prior to been tested.

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It includes expressions such as but, therefore and then (cf. Halliday & Hasan 2008: 5-9, 226-227, 242-243, 278-279, 288, 303-304; Vater 2001: 30; Malmkjær 2010: 540). Example (22) shows this type of cohesion: (22) We filled in the form. Then we talked to the person in charge. Halliday & Hasan (2008) state: Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the preceding (or following) text, but they express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse.

This categorisation of reference is visualised in Figure 1. Fig. 1: Reference Although both endophora and exophora constitute referential processes, they are different in one aspect fundamentally important for this work: whether the antecedents are found in the text or context. By definition, endophoric expressions have their point of reference in the text. Exophoric items, however, are references to the situation, so the referred item is retrievable from the verbal or nonverbal situation. e. if this item is endophoric or exophoric.

This could go back to the fact that the words exophora and endophora by Halliday & Hasan (2008) did not come into extensive use but are instead frequently replaced by deixis and anaphora (cf. Vater 2005: 18). For instance, Huddleston & Pullum’s The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2010) includes a chapter called “deixis and anaphora”, rather than “exophora and endophora”. 4 Anaphors as cohesive devices in texts Anaphors linguistically belong to the concept of cohesion. Anaphors are cohesive devices because they establish relations between linguistic elements in texts and therefore contribute to the cohesion of a text.

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